Iran Nomads

Iran nomads, Persian nomadsIt can be stated that from the very long past, majority of the people in Iran were engaged in pastoral subsistence and animal breeding. Thus earning their livelihood in various parts of the country mostly. The herds were taken to the seasonal summer or winter quarters, where the herdsmen lived in tents. These decamping differentiated this community from the others who were permanent dwellers. Thereby bringing about trivial conflicts amongst them at times. Moreover, this community could not be categorized as nomads in general, as some were semi-tribal. The latter stationed a part of their clan in their distinct realm regards their summer or winter quarters. Whereas their respective chieftains, dwelled in the cities or villages for part of the year. Though the life of these communities or tribes intermingled with their decamping conditions, which made them adapt to their surroundings, certain factors are not distinct.

Divisions of Iran Nomads:

The north and northwestern tribes of Iran, comprising of various clans such as the Turkaman tribes. The same are within the limits of the provinces of Golestan and Khorassan.

The Turkmans
Turkaman nomadsThe Turkmans of Iran belong to the Turkish speaking tribes. They have presently settled down in the north eastern corner of Iran. The Turkmans of Iran consist of four main tribes: the Yomut, the Guklan, the Nokhorli and the Tekké. Social and cultural differences can be observed due to their historical background and different means of subsistence, despite their great similarities. The Yomut consist of two subtribes - The Atabay and Jafarbay. Until the beginning of this century the tribe was nomadic but now only a few of them migrate and within a limited area. Turkman Sahra located south of the Atrak River, It is a slightly hilly area, sloping gently towards the Caspian Sea. Its climate ranges from moderate in winter to hot and dry in summer, which changes into a humid Mediterranean type around the Caspian Sea.

The northwestern tribes of Iran, enveloping such tribes as the Shahsavan, Arasbaran, Afshar-e-Qezelbash, Garahgozloo and various clans of the Khamseh tribe. These are within the limits of eastern and west Azarbayjan, Hamadan, Ardabil and Zanjan.

The Shahsavan
Shahsavan means "protectors of the king" and refers to the fact that this nomadic tribe guards one of Iran's most remote and vulnerable frontiers, at Azerbaijan. The Shahsavan are a tribe in north-western Iran. There are several groups of Shahsavan nomads scattered throughout the region. The majority of the Shahsavan tribe lives in northwest Iran near the city of Ardabil and Dashtehmoghan.

The western tribes of Iran, comprising of those having a Kurdish dialect, Kalhor, Sanjabi, Gurkani and... The said reside in the provinces of Kermanshah, west Azarbayjan and Kurdestan.
*The southwest and southern tribes of Iran, comprising of various clans such as the Khamseh, Qashqaie, Arab and the Lor-e-Koochak. These are settled in the provinces of Fars, Khuzestan and Lurestan.

The Lors
Lors nomadsThe Lors are a nomadic tribe of shepherds who live in the Zagros Mountains of southwestern Iran. Many believe that they were, in fact, the original inhabitants of this area. The Lors are primarily located in three regions: Lorestan, Kermanshah and Bouyer A. & Kohkiluyeh, all of which are part of the Zagros Mountains. The valleys within this range have rich pastures that have been used by different nomadic tribes from time to time. Although most of the Lor live in this general area, other Lor communities can also be found scattered across Iran. While nearly five million Luri live in Iran, only approximately 70,000 live in Iraq. Their homes are located in the Zagros Mountains, which are situated in the eastern portion of the country. The Lors speak a language, called "Lori," that is very similar to modern Persian. Since the Lors regularly have contacts outside their own communities, they are generally bilingual.About half of the Lors are shepherds. They live as nomads, traveling six to eight months out of the year and living in black goat-hair tents. They only live in permanent dwellings for a few months during the winter. From October to April they live in low-lying pastures; but in the dry season, they move their flocks to high mountain pastures. The Lors believe that a shepherd's success is determined by his personal qualities and good luck. Some of the Lors prefer farming over shepherding. They live in permanent villages all year round, as opposed to moving from place to place, and raise wheat and barley as their principal crops. The Lors are known for their rich folklore. Their tales glorify the history of each tribal group and describe the adventures of their heroes. They also emphasize such characteristics as loyalty, generosity, and, most importantly, bravery in battle.

Qashqaie Tribe
Qashghaie TribThe Turkish speaking Qashqaie tribe is the most reputed tribe in southern Iran. The Qashqaie territory extends from Abadeh and Shahreza in the Isfahan province to the Persian Gulf coast. The tribe comprises numerous clans. The major ones are Kashkooli, Sheesh Blocki, Khalaj, Farsi Madan, Safi Khani, Rahimi, Bayat, and Darreh Shuyee. One school of thought maintains that the Qashqaies descended from the ancestors of the Turkish Khalaj clan, who lived between India and Sistan region of Iran, and then migrated to central and southern Iran. Each clan has a chief, and there was a general tribal leader who was appointed in the old days. The Qashqaie tribe has never played a decisive role in the national political developments, but it has occasionally been the source of short-lived troubles for the government.

The south eastern tribes of Iran, comprising of the Balooch tribes rsiding in the province of Sistan and Baluchestan.

The tribes of central Iran, these are namely, the Bakhtiyari, Boyer Ahmad, Doshman Ziyari, Charam, Bavi, Bahmehyi, Tayebi, Mokran and ........ The same reside within the limits of the provinces of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiyari, Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh and Kerman.

The Bakhtiari Nomads
Iran Bakhtiari nomadsThe Bakhtiyari tribe is composed of the clans living in the mountainous regions between the Chaharmahal, Fars, Khuzistan (the Taftoon Field), and Lurestan provinces. The tribe is divided into two separate branches: Haft Gang and Chahar Gang. The former consists of 55 and the latter of 24 clans. The Arabian and Lur clans mix together in the Bakhtiari tribe. The Bakhtiari tribe is also called the Great Lur.The Bakhtiari tribe, which numbers more than 800,000, inhabits an area of approximately 67,000 sq. km (25,000 sq. mi) that straddles the central Zagros Mountains in Iran. Although only about a third of the tribe is nomadic, the nomads embody the Bakhtiari cultural ideals. Their production of carpets have increased at the start of the 19th century. This region is known for having very luxurious wool that produces excellent carpets.

The eastern and northeastern tribes of Iran, which comprise of various clans settled in the province of Khorassan.

 

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